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May 20, 2022
17 Amazing Powers of Hongda Phytochemistry Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)
What is nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)?
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) exists as α and β anomeric forms while it is identified as nicotinamide ribotide, nicotinamide-1-ium-1-β-D-ribofuranoside 5′-phosphate, β-nicotinamide ribose monophosphate, and 3-carbamoyl-1-[5-O-(hydroxyphosphinato)-β-D-ribofuranosyl] pyridinium, among others. The β form is the active anomer and NMN is naturally structured as a result of a reaction, catalyzed by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme, between a phosphate group and a nucleoside comprising nicotinamide (an amide form of vitamin B3) and ribose. NMN is a bioactive nucleotide with a pyridine base and its molecular weight is 334.22 g/mol. It is a fairly acidic and water-soluble compound. The solubility has been reported to be 1.8 mg/mL.
NMN is mainly located in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm, whereas in the human body, it can be found in placenta tissue and body fluids such as blood and urine. It is naturally found in a variety of fruits and vegetables including immature soybean pods, cabbage, cucumber, broccoli, tomato, mushroom, and avocado as well as in raw beef and shrimp. The NMN content in these vegetables and fruits are 0.25–1.88 mg/100 g and 0.26–1.60 mg/100 g, respectively, whereas raw beef and shrimp contain a comparatively lower level of NMN than that plant-based food (0.06–0.42 mg/100 g). Based on the evidence of the presence of NMN in red blood cells, it has been put forward that physiologically pertinent NMN contents, which are required for the biosynthesis of NAD+ and many physiological functions, are absorbed from daily food sources.
(1) NMN reverses muscle aging and prevents radiation. This function of NMN can be used to improve the muscle atrophy of astronauts (astronauts lack exercise due to weightlessness) and resist radiation. NASA also awarded the discovery team the David Sinclair iTech Award.
(2) NMN regenerates blood vessels: Studies have found that after using NMN in old mice, the number and density of capillaries are almost the same as in young mice, and muscle endurance can reach 80%. Further reading: Vascular aging is the root cause of all diseases!
(3) NMN reverses vascular aging, NMN reverses the level of microRNA (miRNA) in aging blood vessels of mice, thereby rejuvenating blood vessels and resisting atherosclerosis, preventing and improving cardiovascular and renal diseases.
(4) NMN has a significant cerebrovascular protective effect, and NMN can treat/prevent neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive impairment (senile dementia, etc.) in elderly patients.
(5) NMN prevents various diseases of the elderly: On February 19, 2019, Shinkowa in Japan released a clinical trial report on the benefits of 24-week oral NMN on the human body. Also has increased, and no side effects.
(6) NMN improves basal metabolism: Studies have shown that NMN can increase the level of NAD+, improve cell vitality, like exercise, improve body metabolism, and effectively prevent hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia.
(7) NMN stabilizes telomeres, maintains telomere length and improves the symptoms of telomere disorders, and can significantly improve physical activity, metabolism, brain function, and lifespan.
(8) NMN helps pregnancy: an enzyme NMNAT2, an enzyme that can mediate NAD+ synthesis, NAD+ synthesis mediated by it has a protective effect on senescent oocytes.
(9) NMN enhances gene repair: Scientists published in a scientific journal, that NAD+ activates the DNA repair enzyme PARP to repair the DNA in cells and cells, and fundamentally solves the problem of diseases, confirming that NMN directly affects the self-repair and regeneration of cells.
(10) NMN relieves hangovers and protects the liver. NMN can increase liver NAD+ levels, prevent ethanol-induced ALT and AST elevations through Atf3 and Erk1/2 signaling, and change the expression of 25% of genes regulated by ethanol metabolism. The treatment of alcoholic fatty liver is effective.
(11) NMN improves depressive behavior and insomnia. NMN can improve the condition of mice with cortisol (CORT)-induced depression, enhance the activity of NAD+ synthesis rate-limiting enzyme NAMPT, and improve sleep! In addition, there are also two papers published in the "Journal of Molecular Cells" in 2020, supplementing NAD+ to rejuvenate the biological clock. NAD+ can restore the normal circadian rhythm through the SIRT1 dependence of the core clock protein and can adjust the sleep of the elderly to the state of youth.
(12) Improve sex hormone NMN to improve sexual function, improve kidney function, restore energy and increase physical strength.
(13) NMN enhances immunity, fights viruses and cancer: published in Biomedical Research on September 27, 2021, NMN can effectively enhance the activity of immune cells NK cells, and increase the natural killing of cells without increasing the number of NK immune cells The ability of cancer cells to enhance immunity, achieve the effect of fighting and preventing virus infection and cancer.
(14) NMN improves diabetes: April 22, 2021, Washington University School of Medicine, in the journal Science, published a human clinical trial concluding that NMN improves:
1. Metabolism in middle-aged and elderly women with prediabetes.
2. Promote muscle function and growth.
3. Prevention of various age-related diseases
(15) NMN prevents skin photoaging: On June 12, 2021, the laboratory of DHC Corporation in Japan published a study in the Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, which concluded that NMN can protect skin cells from UV damage and prevent skin photoaging.
(16) NMN enhances muscle function and mobility: The University of Tokyo 2021/06/09 published a paper in Research Square showing that oral administration of 250 mg of NMN per day significantly increased their NAD+ levels and improved their Muscle performance and athletic ability.
(17)NMN prevents and improves the Covid-19 virus:
1. NMN increases NAD+ levels can enhance the immune response to COVID-19 infection.
2. COVID-19 (new coronavirus) patients improved by NMN cocktail therapy.